Several different forms of energy exist to explain all known natural phenomena. These forms include (but are not limited
to) kinetic, potential, thermal, gravitational, sound, light, elastic, and electromagnetic energy. Any form of energy can be
transformed into another form, but the total energy always remains the same. This principle, the conservation of energy,
was first postulated in the early 19th century, and applies to any isolated system. According to Noether's theorem, the
conservation of energy is a consequence of the fact that the laws of physics do not change over time.
Although the total energy of a system does not change with time, its value may depend on the frame of reference. For
example, a seated passenger in a moving airplane has zero kinetic energy relative to the airplane, but non-zero kinetic
energy relative to the Earth.
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