In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is
dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent.A solution is saturated when there is too much solvent in the liquid
i.e:The water cannot dissolve any more solvent because it is too much. A common example is a solid, such as salt or
sugar, dissolved in water, a liquid. Gases may dissolve in liquids, for example, carbon dioxide or oxygen in water.
Liquids may dissolve in other liquids. Gases can combine with other gases to form mixtures, rather than solutions. All
solutions are characterized by interactions between the solvent phase and solute molecules or ions that result in a net
decrease in free energy. Under such a definition, gases typically cannot function as solvents, since in the gas phase
interactions between molecules are minimal due to the large distances between the molecules. This lack of interaction
is the reason gases can expand freely and the presence of these interactions is the reason liquids do not expand.
Examples of solid solutions are alloys, certain minerals and polymers containing plasticizers. The ability of one
compound to dissolve in another compound is called solubility. The physical properties of compounds such as melting
point and boiling point change when other compounds are added. Together they are called colligative properties. There
are several ways to quantify the amount of one compound dissolved in the other compounds collectively called
concentration. Examples include molarity, molality, and parts per million (ppm).
Solutions should be distinguished from non-homogeneous mixtures such as colloids and suspensions.
Types of solutions
Many types of solutions exist, as solids, liquids and gases can be both solvent and solute, in any combination:
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